Validating computer attitude questionnaire

In their study, Karaman and Celik (2008 cited in Tseng, Chang, Lou, & Chen, 2013 ), demonstrated that those students participated in PBL classes performed better in skill development, knowledge retention and general abilities comparing with those were not in PBL classes.Students also acquire different skills such as collaborative, technical, problem-solving, and leadership skills that enhance their positive attitude toward STEM.Also, students whose GPA and their fathers’ educational levels were high showed more positive attitude toward self-learning.Furthermore, the time of using technology and hands-on activity as a component of the students’ attitude toward STEM-PBL showed indirect relationship. Introduction Contemporary history of educational research reveals that leading students to success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have received unprecedented local and international special attention (Han, Rosli, Capraro, & Capraro, 2016; Capraro & Slough, 2013; Hamaideh & Hamdan-Mansour, 2014; Najafi, Ebrahimitabass, Dehghani, & Rezaei, 2012) .This unique attention is mostly for diverse proliferated educational benefits in this interdisciplinary curriculum.Embedded vital skills (e.g., creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving), students’ liberty to form their learning strategies, promoting self-regulated learning, and facilitating the process of career are some of important benefits of STEM that make it central to research (Kumari & Nandal, 2016; Wallace & Webb, 2016; Han et al., 2014; La Force, Noble, & Blackwell, 2017) .

2) Students’ Attitude toward STEM-PBL: Students’ attitude toward STEM-PBL refers to the way students think and feel about the STEM and the way they involved themselves in the process of learning through PBL.Using confirmatory factor analysis, Graded Response Modeling (GRM) based on Item Response Theory (IRT) provided technical informative details about each item of scale.Examining the items of scale displays reasonable psychometric properties including the validity of Student Attitude toward STEM-PBL Questionnaire.Also, the power of predictability of academic achievement by means of students’ attitude, and the mediating role of demographic factors were aimed to explore.The scale was completed by 337 students who were selected randomly.

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  1. Sure there are cases where she will quickly heal her thinking and likely victimhood status, but they are rare, gentlemen. But be forewarned: it can be quite toxic to men to deeply involve themselves with depressed women.